A Taxonomy of Blockchain Technologies: Principles of Identification and Classification





A comparative study across the most widely known blockchain technologies is conducted with a bottom-up approach. Blockchains are deconstructed into their building blocks. Each building block is then hierarchically classified into main and subcomponents. Then, varieties of the subcomponents are identified and compared. A taxonomy tree is used to summarise the study and provide a navigation tool across different blockchain architectural configurations.

Author Biographies

Paolo Tasca, University College London, Centre for Blockchain Technologies

Founder and Executive Director of Centre for Blockchain Technologies at University College London, UK

Claudio J. Tessone, University of Zurich

Assistant Professor of Network Science, University of Zurich.

Co-founder of UZH Blockchain Centre.


Adhami, S., Giudici, G., Martinazzi, S. “Why Do Businesses Go Crypto? An Empirical Analysis of Initial Coin Offerings.” Journal of Economics and Business (in press) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeconbus.2018.04.001.

Alvseike, R., Iversen, G. A. G. “Blockchain and the Future of Money and Finance: A Qualitative Exploratory Study of Blockchain Technology and Implications for the Monetary and Financial System.” Norwegian School of Economics (2017) (Master’s Thesis) http://hdl.handle.net/11250/2453330.

Andrews, C., Broby, D., Paul, G., Whitfield, I. “Utilising Financial Blockchain Technologies in Advanced Manufacturing.” University of Strathclyde (2017) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/id/eprint/61982.

Aste, T., Tasca, P., Di Matteo, T. “Blockchain Technologies: The Foreseeable Impact on Society and Industry.” Computer 50.9 18–28 (2017) http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571064.

Atzei, N., Bartoletti, M., Cimoli, T. “A Survey of Attacks on Ethereum Smart Contracts (SoK).” In M. Maffei, M. Ryan (Eds.), Principles of Security and Trust, 6th International Conference, POST 2017, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2017, Uppsala, Sweden, April 22-29, 2017, Proceedings. Berlin: Springer 164–186 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-54455-6_8.

Atzori, M. “Blockchain Technology and Decentralized Governance: Is the State Still Necessary?” Journal of Governance and Regulation 6.1 https://dx.doi.org/10.22495/jgr_v6_i1_p5.

Badzar, A. “Blockchain for Securing Sustainable Transport Contracts and Supply Chain Transparency: An Explorative Study of Blockchain Technology in Logistics.” Lund University (2016) (Master’s Thesis) http://lup.lub.lu.se/student-papers/record/8880383.

Barabasi, A.-L., Posfai, M. Network Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2016).

Barber, S., Boyen, X., Shi, E., Uzun, E. “Bitter to Better—-How to Make Bitcoin a Better Currency.” In A. Keromytis (Ed.), International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security. Berlin: Springer 399–414 (2012) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32946-3_29.

Ben-Sasson, E., Chiesa, A., Tromer, E., Virza, M. “Scalable Zero Knowledge Via Cycles of Elliptic Curves.” In J. A. Garay, R. Gennaro (Eds.), Advances in Cryptology–CRYPTO 2014. Berlin: Springer 276–294 (2014) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44381-1_16.

Ben-Sasson, E., et al. “Zerocash: Decentralized Anonymous Payments from Bitcoin.” In 2014 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE 459–474 (2014) https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2014.36.

Bonneau, J., Miller, A., Clark, J., Narayanan, A., Kroll, J. A., Felten, E. W. “SoK: Research Perspectives and Challenges for Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies.” In 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE 104–121 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2015.14.

Boudguiga, A., et al. “Towards Better Availability and Accountability for IoT Updates by Means of a Blockchain.” In IEEE Security & Privacy on the Blockchain (IEEE S&B 2017) an IEEE EuroS&P 2017 and Eurocrypt 2017 Affiliated Workshop. (2017) https://doi.org/10.1109/EuroSPW.2017.50.

Buterin, V., et al. “A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform.” (2014) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper.

Buterin, V., Ray, J. “Light Client Protocol: Background: Patricia Merkle Trees.” (2014) (accessed 10 November 2018), https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Light-client-protocol#background-patricia-merkle-trees.

Carlsten, M. The Impact of Transaction Fees on Bitcoin Mining Strategies. (PhD Thesis) Princeton University (2016).

Castro, M., Liskov, B., et al. “Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance.” In Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation, New Orleans, USA, February 1999. 173–186 (1999) https://www.usenix.org/legacy/events/osdi99/castro.html.

Catalini, C., Gans, J. S. “Some Simple Economics of the Blockchain.” SSRN (2017) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://ssrn.com/abstract=2874598.

Cawrey, D. “Why New Forms of Spam Could Bloat Bitcoin’s Block Chain.” CoinDesk (2014) (accessed 13 January 2017) http://www.coindesk.com/new-forms-spam-bloat-bitcoins-block-chain/.

Chakravorty, A., Rong, C. “Ushare: User Controlled Social Media Based on Blockchain.” In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication. New York: Association for Computing Machinery 99 (2017) http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3022227.3022325.

Chen, Z.-D., Zhuo, Y., Duan, Z.-B., Kai, H. “Inter-Blockchain Communication.” DEStech Transactions on Computer Science and Engineering http://dx.doi.org/10.12783/dtcse/cst2017/12539.

Clack, C. D., Bakshi, V. A., Braine, L. “Smart Contract Templates: Essential Requirements and Design Options.” arXiv (2016) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.04496.

Conley, J. P. “Blockchain and the Economics of Crypto-Tokens and Initial Coin Offerings.” Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers (2017) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://ideas.repec.org/p/van/wpaper/vuecon-sub-17-00007.html.

Conti, M., Lal, C., Ruj, S., Sandeep, K. E. “A Survey on Security and Privacy Issues of Bitcoin.” arXiv (2017) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://arxiv.org/abs/1706.00916.

Cristian, F. “Understanding Fault-Tolerant Distributed Systems.” Communications of the ACM 34.2 56–78 (1991) https://doi.org/10.1145/102792.102801.

Crosby, M., Pattanayak, P., Verma, S., Kalyanaraman, V. “Blockchain Technology: Beyond Bitcoin.” Applied Innovation Institute (2016) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://www.appliedinnovationinstitute.org/blockchain-technology-beyond-bitcoin/.

Davidson, S., De Filippi, P., Potts, J. “Disrupting Governance: The New Institutional Economics of Distributed Ledger Technology.” SSRN (2016) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://ssrn.com/abstract=2811995.

de Wit, J. “DAO, Can It Be Viable? An Exploratory Research on the Viability of a Blockchain Based Decentralized Autonomous Organization.” Radboud University (2017) (Master’s Thesis) https://theses.ubn.ru.nl/handle/123456789/4517.

Decker, C., Wattenhofer, R. “A Fast and Scalable Payment Network with Bitcoin Duplex Micropayment Channels.” In A. Pelc, A. Schwarzmann (Eds.), Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems, 17th International Symposium, SSS 2015, Edmonton, AB, Canada, August 18-21, 2015, Proceedings. Berlin: Springer 3–18 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21741-3_1.

Decker, C., Wattenhofer, R. “Information Propagation in the Bitcoin Network.” In 2013 IEEE Thirteenth International Conference onPeer-to-Peer Computing. IEEE 1–10 (2013) https://doi.org/10.1109/P2P.2013.6688704.

Dilley, J., Poelstra, A., Wilkins, J., Piekarska, M., Gorlick, B., Friedenbach, M. “Strong Federations: An Interoperable Blockchain Solution to Centralized Third Party Risks.” arXiv (2016) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.05491.

Dorri, A., Kanhere, S. S., Jurdak, R. “Towards an Optimized BlockChain for IoT.” In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation. New York: Association for Computing Machinery 173–178 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1145/3054977.3055003.

Douceur, J. R. “The Sybil Attack.” In P. Druschel, F. Kaashoek, A. Rowstron (Eds.), Peer-to-Peer Systems. Berlin: Springer 251–260 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45748-8_24.

Driscoll, K., Hall, B., Sivencrona, H., Zumsteg, P. “Byzantine Fault Tolerance: from Theory to Reality.” In S. Anderson, M. Felici, B. Littlewood (Eds.), International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security. Berlin: Springer 235–248 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-39878-3_19.

Dziembowski, S., Faust, S., Kolmogorov, V., Pietrzak, K. “Proofs of Space.” In R. Gennaro, M. Robshaw (Eds.), Advances in Cryptology–CRYPTO 2015. Berlin: Springer 585–605 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48000-7_29.

Evans, C. “Bitcoin in Islamic Banking and Finance.” Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance 3.1 1–11(2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.15640/jibf.v3n1a1.

Eyal, I. “The Miner’s Dilemma.” In 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE 89–103 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2015.13.

Eyal, I., Sirer, E. G. “Majority Is Not Enough: Bitcoin Mining Is Vulnerable.” In N. Christin, R. Safavi-Naini (Eds.), Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18th International Conference, FC 2014, Christ Church, Barbados, March 3-7, 2014. Berlin: Springer 436–454 (2014) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45472-5_28.

Fischer, M. J. “The Consensus Problem in Unreliable Distributed Systems (A Brief Survey).” In M. Karpinski (Ed.), International Conference on Fundamentals of Computation Theory. Berlin: Springer 127–140 (1983) https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-12689-9_99.

Garcia, D., Tessone, C. J., Mavrodiev, P., Perony, N. “The Digital Traces of Bubbles: Feedback Cycles Between Socio-Economic Signals in the Bitcoin Economy.” Journal of The Royal Society Interface 11.9920140623 (2014) https://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2014.0623.

Garzik, J. “Segregated Witness in the Context of Scaling Bitcoin.” (2015) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://www.mail-archive.com/bitcoin-dev@lists.linuxfoundation.org/msg03051.html.

Grinberg, R. “Bitcoin: An Innovative Alternative Digital Currency.” Hastings Science & Technology Law Journal 4 159 (2012) https://ssrn.com/abstract=1817857.

Guegan, D. “Public Blockchain Versus Private Blockchain.” Universite Pantheon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d’Economie de la Sorbonne working papers (2017) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://econpapers.repec.org/RePEc:mse:cesdoc:17020.

Hackius, N., Petersen, M. “Blockchain in Logistics and Supply Chain: Trick or Treat?” In W. Kersten, T. Blecker, C. M. Ringle (Eds.), Proceedings of the Hamburg International Conference of Logistics (HICL). Hamburg: epubli 3–18 (2017) https://doi.org/10.15480/882.1444.

Harvey, C. R. “Cryptofinance.” SSRN (2016) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://ssrn.com/abstract=2438299.

Hearn, M. “Corda: A distributed ledger.” Corda Technical White Paper.

Hearn, M. “Corda: A distributed ledger.” (2016) (accessed 29 November 2018) https://www.r3.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/corda_technical_R3.pdf.

Kim, H., Laskowski, M. “A Perspective on Blockchain Smart Contracts: Reducing Uncertainty and Complexity in Value Exchange.” arXiv (2018) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://ssrn.com/abstract=2975770.

Kotobi, K., Bilen, S. G. “Blockchain-Enabled Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks.” In 2017 Wireless Telecommunications Symposium. IEEE 1–6 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1109/WTS.2017.7943523.

Kuo, T.-T., Kim, H.-E., Ohno-Machado, L. “Blockchain Distributed Ledger Technologies for Biomedical and Health Care Applications.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 24.6 1211–1220 (2017) https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocx068.

Lamport, L., Shostak, R., Pease, M. “The Byzantine Generals Problem.” ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems 4.3 382–401 (1982) https://doi.org/10.1145/357172.357176.

Lerner, S. D. “Segwit2Mb–combined soft/hard fork–Request For Comments.” (2017) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2017-March/013921.html.

Lewenberg, Y., Bachrach, Y., Sompolinsky, Y., Zohar, A., Rosenschein, J. S. “Bitcoin Mining Pools: A Cooperative Game Theoretic Analysis.” In Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems. Istanbul: International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems 919–927 (2015) http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2772879.2773270.

Lin, I.-C., Liao, T.-C. “A Survey of Blockchain Security Issues and Challenges.” International Journal of Network Security 19.5 653–659 (2017) https://dx.doi.org/10.6633/IJNS.201709.19(5).01.

Lombrozo, E., Lau, J., Wuille, P. “Segregated Witness (Consensus Layer).” (2015) Technical Report BIP-141, Bitcoin Improvement Proposal https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/master/bip-0141.mediawiki.

Luther, W. J. “Cryptocurrencies, Network Eeffects, and Switching Costs.” Contemporary Economic Policy 34.3 553–571 (2016) https://doi.org/10.1111/coep.12151.

Luther, W. J. “Is Bitcoin Intrinsically Worthless?” Journal of Private Enterprise 33.1 31–45 (2018) http://journal.apee.org/index.php/2018_Journal_of_Private_Enterprise_Vol_33_No_1_Spring_parte3.

Mainelli, M., von Gunten, C. “Chain Of A Lifetime: How Blockchain Technology Might Transform Personal Insurance.” Long Finance and Z/Yen Group (2014) (accessed 29 October 2018) http://archive.longfinance.net/images/Chain_Of_A_Lifetime_December2014.pdf.

Marian, O. “A Conceptual Framework for the Regulation of Cryptocurrencies.” University of Chicago Law Review Online 82.4 53 (2015) https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/uclrev_online/vol82/iss1/4.

Mattila, J. “The Blockchain Phenomenon–The Disruptive Potential of Distributed Consensus Architectures.” The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (2016) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://ideas.repec.org/p/rif/wpaper/38.html.

Maurer, F. K. “A Survey on Approaches to Anonymity in Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies.” In H. C. Mayr, M. Pinzger (Eds.), 46. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft f¨ur Informatik, Informatik 2016, 26-30 September 2016, Klagenfurt, O¨ sterreich. Bonn: Gesellschaft fu¨r Informatik 2145–2150 (2016) https://dl.gi.de/20.500.12116/1110.

McWaters, R. J. “The Future of Financial Infrastructure: An Ambitious Look at How Blockchain Can Reshape Financial Services.” World Economic Forum (2016) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-future-of-financial-infrastructure-an-ambitious-look-at-how-blockchain-can-reshape-financial-services.

Meguerditchian, V. “Roadmap for Blockchain Standards Report–March 2017.” Standards Australia (2017) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://www.standards.org.au/getmedia/ad5d74db-8da9-4685-b171-90142ee0a2e1/Roadmap_for_Blockchain_Standards_report.pdf.aspx. See: http://arstweb.clayton.edu/interlex.

Meiklejohn, S., Orlandi, C. “Privacy-Enhancing Overlays in Bitcoin.” In M. Brenner, N. Christin, B. Johnson, K. Rohloff (Eds.), Financial Cryptography and Data Security, FC 2015 International Workshops, BITCOIN, WAHC, and Wearable, San Juan, Puerto Rico, January 30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin: Springer 127–141 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_10.

Merkle, R. C. “A Digital Signature Based on a Conventional Encryption Function.” In C. Pomerance (Ed.), Advances in Cryptology–CRYPTO ’87. Berlin: Springer 369–378 (1988) https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-48184-2_32.

Morrison, D. R. “PATRICIA—Practical Algorithm To Retrieve Information Coded In Alphanumeric.” Journal of the ACM 15.4 514–534 (1968) https://doi.org/10.1145/321479.321481.

Moser, M., Bohme, R. “Anonymous Alone? Measuring Bitcoin’s Second-Generation Anonymization Techniques.” In 2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops. IEEE 32–41 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1109/EuroSPW.2017.48.

Moser, M., Bohme, R. “Trends, Tips, Tolls: A Longitudinal Study of Bitcoin Transaction Fees.” In M. Brenner, N. Christin, B. Johnson, K. Rohloff (Eds.), Financial Cryptography and Data Security, FC 2015 International Workshops, BITCOIN, WAHC, and Wearable, San Juan, Puerto Rico, January 30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin: Springer 19–33 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_2.

Nakamoto, S. “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.” (2008) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf.

No Author. “CoinJoin.” Bitcoin Wiki (accessed 1 June 2017) https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/CoinJoin.

No Author. “Developer Guide: Block Chain Overview.” bitcoin.org (2015) (accessed 25 April 2017) https://bitcoin.org/en/developer-guide#block-chain-overview.

No Author. “Developer Guide: Mining.” bitcoin.org (2015) (accessed 25 April 2017) https://bitcoin.org/en/developer-guide#mining.

No Author. “History Sharding.” Ripple (2018) (accessed 1 November 2018) https://developers.ripple.com/history-sharding.html.

No Author. “Mixing Service.” Bitcoin Wiki (accessed 1 January 2018) https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Mixing_service.

No Author. “ripple.com.” Ripple (2015) (accessed 1 June 2015) http://www.ripple.com.

No Author. “Validator Details.” Ripple (2018) (accessed 1 November 2018) https://xrp.media/validator-details/.

Noether, S., Mackenzie, A., Monero Research Lab. “Ring Confidential Transactions.” Ledger 1 1–18 (2016) https://doi.org/10.5195/ledger.2016.34.

O’Dwyer, K. J., Malone, D. “Bitcoin Mining and its Energy Footprint.” In 25th IET Irish Signals and Systems Conference 2014 and 2014 China-Ireland International Conference on Information and Communications Technologies (ISSC 2014/CIICT 2014). (2014) https://dx.doi.org/10.1049/cp.2014.0699.

Otto, K. N., Wood, K. L. “Product Evolution: A Reverse Engineering and Redesign Methodology.” Research in Engineering Design 10.4 226–243 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1007/s001639870003.

Park, S., Pietrzak, K., Alwen, J., Fuchsbauer, G., Gazi, P. “Spacecoin: A Cryptocurrency Based on Proofs of Space.” IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive (2015) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/528.pdf.

Patterson, R. “Alternatives for Proof of Work, Part 2: Proof of Activity, Proof of Burn, Proof of Capacity, and Byzantine Generals.” Bytecoin (2015) (accessed 25 April 2017, no longer online but available via Internet Archive Wayback Machine) https://web.archive.org/web/20160304055454/https://bytecoin.org/blog/proof-of-activity-proof-of-burn-proof-of-capacity.

Plant, L., et al. “Implications of Open Source Blockchain for Increasing Efficiency and Transparency of the Digital Content Supply Chain in the Australian Telecommunications and Media Industry.” Australian Journal of Telecommunications and the Digital Economy 5.3 15 (2017) https://doi.org/10.18080/ajtde.v5n3.113.

Poon, J., Dryja, T. “The Bitcoin Lightning Network: Scalable Off-chain Instant Payments.” See: https://lightning.network/lightning-network-paper.pdf.

Quintana Diaz, J. M. “The Merger of Cryptography and Finance-Do Cryptographic Economic Systems Lead to the Future of Money and Payments?” SSRN (2014) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://ssrn.com/abstract=2536876.

Rabbit. “So You Want to Run Rippled?” Ripple (2018) (accessed 1 November 2018) https://xrpcommunity.blog/rippled/.

Reid, F., Harrigan, M. “An Analysis of Anonymity in the Bitcoin System.” In A. Y., Y. Elovici, A. Cremers, N. Aharony, A. Pentland (Eds.), Security and Privacy in Social Networks. New York: Springer 197–223 (2013) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4139-7_10.

Rivest, R., Shamir, A., Tauman, Y. “How to Leak a Secret.” In C. Boyd (Ed.), Advances in Cryptology—ASIACRYPT 2001. Berlin: Springer (2001) https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45682-1_32.

Rohr, J., Wright, A. “Blockchain-Based Token Sales, Initial Coin Offerings, and the Democratization of Public Capital Markets.” SSRN (2017) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://ssrn.com/abstract=3048104.

Rosenfeld, M. “Overview of Colored Coins.” (2012) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://bitcoil.co.il/BitcoinX.pdf.

Scott, B. “How Can Cryptocurrency and Blockchain Technology play a Role in Building Social and Solidarity Finance?” United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Working Paper (2016) (accessed 29 October 2018) http://www.unrisd.org/brett-scott.

Selgin, G. “Synthetic Commodity Money.” Journal of Financial Stability 17 92–99 (2015) https://econpapers.repec.org/article/eeefinsta/v_3a17_3ay_3a2015_3ai_3ac_3ap_3a92-99.htm.

Sompolinsky, Y., Zohar, A. “Bitcoin’s Underlying Incentives.” Communications of the ACM 61.3 46–53 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1145/3155112.3168362.

Stellnberger, M. “Insurance Through Blockchain: A Hybrid Approach.” martinstellnberger.co (2016) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://www.martinstellnberger.co/s/Insurance-through-Blockchain-A-hybrid-approach-2016-v3.pdf.

Tasca, P. “Digital currencies: Principles, Trends, Opportunities, and Risks.” SSRN (2015) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://ssrn.com/abstract=2657598.

Tasca, P. “The Dual Nature of Bitcoin as Payment Network and Money.” SUERF Conference Proceedings 2016/1 ”Cash on Trial”. (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2805003.

Tasca, P. “The Hope and Betrayal of Blockchain.” (2018) (accessed 9 November 2018) https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/04/opinion/blockchain-bitcoin-technology-revolution.html.

Tasca, P., Liu, S., Hayes, A. “The Evolution of the Bitcoin Economy: Extracting and Analyzing the Network of Payment Relationships.” The Journal of Risk Finance 19.2 94–126 (2016) https://doi.org/10.1108/JRF-03-2017-0059.

Tasca, P., Widmann, S. “The Challenges Faced by Blockchain Technologies–Part 1.” Journal of Digital Banking 2.2 132–147 (2017).

Tessone, C. J., Garcia, D. “Bitcoin: The Centralisation of a Decentralised Economy.” (2017) Unpublished Working Paper UZH.

Tessone, C. J., Tasca, P. “A Parsimonious Model for Blockchain Consensus: Scalability and Consensus Collapse.” (2017) Unpublished Working Paper UZH and UCL.

Timmerman, K., Thomas, M., et al. “Ethereum: More than ’The New Bitcoin’.” The Proctor 37.5 26 (2017).

Tsukerman, M. “Proof of Stake versus Proof of Work.” (2015) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://bitfury.com/content/downloads/pos-vs-pow-1.0.2.pdf.

Tsukerman, M. “The Block Is Hot: A Survey of the State of Bitcoin Regulation and Suggestions for the Future.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal 30 1127 (2015) https://doi.org/10.15779/Z38CK4X.

Walch, A. “The Path of the Blockchain Lexicon (and the Law).” Review of Banking and Financial Law 36 713 (2017) https://www.bu.edu/rbfl/files/2017/09/p729.pdf.

Wood, G. “Ethereum: A Secure Decentralised Generalised Transaction Ledger.” Ethereum (2014) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://ethereum.github.io/yellowpaper/paper.pdf.

Wright, A., De Filippi, P. “Decentralized Blockchain Technology and the Rise of Lex Cryptographia.” SSRN (2015) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2580664.

Wright, A., De Filippi, P. “Decentralized Blockchain Technology and the Rise of Lex Cryptographia.” SSRN (2015) (accessed 29 October 2018) https://ssrn.com/abstract=2580664.

Xu, Q., Aung, K. M. M., Zhu, Y., Yong, K. L. “A Blockchain-Based Storage System for Data Analytics in the Internet of Things.” In R.

Yager, J. Pascual Espada (Eds.), New Advances in the Internet of Things. Berlin: Springer 119–138 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58190-3_8.

Xu, X., et al. “A Taxonomy of Blockchain-Based Systems for Architecture Design.” In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture. 243–252 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSA.2017.33.



How to Cite

Tasca, P., & Tessone, C. J. (2019). A Taxonomy of Blockchain Technologies: Principles of Identification and Classification. Ledger, 4. https://doi.org/10.5195/ledger.2019.140



Research Articles