Ring Confidential Transactions


  • Shen Noether Monero Research Labs
  • Adam Mackenzie
  • the Monero Research Lab




This article introduces a method of hiding transaction amounts in the strongly decentralized anonymous cryptocurrency Monero. Similar to Bitcoin, Monero is a cryptocurrency which is distributed through a proof-of-work “mining” process having no central party or trusted setup. The original Monero protocol was based on CryptoNote, which uses ring signatures and one-time keys to hide the destination and origin of transactions. Recently the technique of using a commitment scheme to hide the amount of a transaction has been discussed and implemented by Bitcoin Core developer Gregory Maxwell. In this article, a new type of ring signature, A Multilayered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature is described which allows one to include a Pedersen Commitment in a ring signature. This construction results in a digital currency with hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation. The author would like to note that early drafts of this were publicized in the Monero Community and on the #bitcoin-wizards IRC channel. Blockchain hashed drafts are available showing that this work was started in Summer 2015, and completed in early October 2015. An eprint is also available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1098. 

Author Biography

Shen Noether, Monero Research Labs

I am currently a mathematics graduate student, (hopefully) in the last year of my ph.d, studying algebraic geometry. I also work for the Monero Reseach Labs doing cryptography research. I would like to stay pseudononymous for now, or at least until my thesis is published, which will hopefully be sometime in the next couple of months.


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How to Cite

Noether, S., Mackenzie, A., & Research Lab, the M. (2016). Ring Confidential Transactions. Ledger, 1, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.5195/ledger.2016.34



Research Articles