Game Channels for Trustless Off-Chain Interactions in Decentralized Virtual Worlds

Daniel Kraft

Abstract


Blockchains can be used to build multi-player online games and virtual worlds that require no central server. This concept is pioneered by Huntercoin, but it leads to large growth of the blockchain and heavy resource requirements. In this paper, we present a new protocol inspired by payment channels and sidechains that allows for trustless off-chain interactions of players in private turn-based games. They are usually performed without requiring space in the public blockchain, but if a dispute arises, the public network can be used to resolve the conflict. We also analyze the resulting security guarantees and describe possible extensions to games with shared turns and for near real-time interaction. Our proposed concept can be used to scale Huntercoin to very large or even infinite worlds and to enable almost real-time interactions between players. 


Keywords


Huntercoin; Virtual reality; Blockchain gaming; Payment channel; Off-chain interaction; Smart contract

Full Text:

PDF Open Review

References


No Author. “Rapidly-adjusted (micro)payments to a pre-determined party.” Bitcoin Wiki (accessed 18 October 2015) https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Contracts#Example_7:_Rapidly-adjusted_.28micro.29payments_to_a_pre-determined_party

Alexander, R. “HunterCoin: The Massive Multiplayer Online Cryptocoin Game (MMOCG).” Bitcoin Magazine (29 August 2014) https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/ huntercoin-the-massive-multiplayer-online-cryptocoin-game-mmocg-1409336751

Antonopoulos, A. M. Mastering Bitcoin: Unlocking Digital Cryptocurrencies. Sebastopol: O’Reilly Media (2014)

Back, A., et al. “Enabling Blockchain Innovations with Pegged Sidechains.” No Publisher (2014) https://www.blockstream.com/sidechains.pdf

Pseudonymous (BGB HUC). “Huntercoin (HUC) Ttime Lapse Blocks 0–499,999.” Youtube (27 December 2014) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=czUU3Z8spUQ

Buterin, V. “Mastercoin: A Second-Generation Protocol on the Bitcoin Blockchain.” Bitcoin Magazine (4 November 2013) https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/mastercoin-a-second-generation-protocol-on-the-bitcoin-blockchain-1383603310

Colosimo, A. (Chronokings). “Huntercoin - Day 1 to Day 32 - Time Lapse - Human Mine-able Crypto Currency.” Youtube (5 March 2014) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q41RW6bxpM4

Colosimo, A. (snailbrain). “[ANN][HUC] Huntercoin - Human Mining - Decentralized MMO and Crypto Game.” Bitcointalk (27 January 2014) https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=435170.0

Ethereum. “A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform.” Github (accessed 18 October 2015) https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper

Kosba, A., Miller, A., Shi, E., Wen, Z., Papamanthou, C. “Hawk: The Blockchain Model of Cryptography and Privacy-Preserving Smart Contracts.” Cryptology ePrint Archive 2015/675 (2015) https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/675

Kumaresan, R., Moran, T., Bentov, I. “How to Use Bitcoin to Play Internet Poker.” No Publisher (2014) http://www.cs.technion.ac.il/ ? ranjit/papers/poker.pdf

Kraft, D. “Difficulty Control for Blockchain-Based Consensus Systems.” Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications (2015) doi:10.1007/s12083-015-0347-x

Kraft, D. (domob). “Game Channels for Near Real-Time Interaction among Players.” Bitcointalk (16 October 2015) https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=435170.msg12699299#msg12699299

Nakamoto, S. “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.” No Publisher (2008) https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf

Pfitzmann, B., Schunter, M., Waidner, M. “Optimal Efficiency of Optimistic Contract Signing.” 17th Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, New York: ACM 113–122 (1998)

Poon, J., Dryja, T. “The Bitcoin Lightning Network.” No Publisher (2015) https://lightning.network/lightning-network-paper.pdf

Rizzo, P. “Overstock Unveils Blockchain Trading Platform at Nasdaq Event.” CoinDesk (5 August 2015) http://www.coindesk.com/overstock-unveils-blockchain-trading-platform-to/

Spaven, E. “Cloud Storage Startup Storj Raises 910 BTC in Crowdsale.” CoinDesk (22 August 2014) http://www.coindesk.com/cloud-storage-startup-storj-raises-910-btc-crowdsale/

Todd, P. “BIP 65: OP CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY.” Github (accessed 18 October 2015) https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/master/bip-0065.mediawiki

Pseudonymous (vinced). “[announce] Namecoin - a distributed naming system based on Bitcoin.” Bitcointalk (18 April 2011) https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=6017

Wagner, A. “Cryptocurrencies in Video Games: Preview Roundup.” Bitcoin Magazine (21 November 2014) https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/

cryptocurrencies-in-video-games-preview-roundup-1416609489

Pseudonymous (WilliamLie2). “[ANN][MOTO] Motocoin.” Bitcointalk (1 May 2014) https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=591724.0




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/ledger.2016.15

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Daniel Kraft

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.